Rationale: The significance of language – meaning and impact are too great to not think critically about. When it comes to rhetors speaking about the rights of people, specifically the rights of women, are they accurate representatives, and does their rhetoric make good use of rhetorical appeals in order to include its subject and the argument in the agenda?

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This unit focuses on the language used in a few iconic speeches made by women on behalf of other women. In this unit, we will think critically about rhetoric [appeals and word choices] in a few iconic speeches about women/human rights, as well as the iconic status that some of these rhetors have gained and if this seemingly elevated platform has helped or diminished the purpose of their speeches.

I wanted to address several things, such as how women speak about themselves, as well as how their rhetoric is interpreted in the media and among society.

fem

I chose a digital form for this mini-unit, and created five lesson plans with videos of speeches [where available] because I wanted to incorporate other platforms of technology, so as to make the material more accessible and interactive.One way I differentiated my lessons is by providing students with transcribed copies of speeches so that students can annotate them and compare their notes with their peers during pair-shares.

One of the summative assessments for this unit will be a rhetorical analysis essay, which the graphic organizers helped to outline. Another assessment will be for students to write their own speech of empowerment using the rhetorical appeals previously discussed in class.

Mini Unit Plan on The Rhetoric of Rights

This unit plan is for 11th graders, taught in an ELA class.

Essential Questions

  • What makes a speech or the rhetor iconic?
  • Does an iconic status diminish the purpose of the speech? What about the credibility?
  • How are the rhetorical strategies achieving their purpose?
  • How does iconic rhetoric affect you?

Rationale: The significance of language – meaning and impact are too great to not think critically about. When it comes to rhetors speaking about the rights of people, specifically the rights of women, are they accurate representatives, and does their rhetoric make good use of rhetorical appeals in order to include its subject and the argument in the agenda?

In this unit, we will think critically about rhetoric [appeals and word choices] in a few iconic speeches about women/human rights.

Common Core Standards:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.A

Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.3

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.B

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases

Instructional Resources

  • Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [1948]
  • Margaret Sanger – “The Morality of Birth Control” + transcript [1921]
  • Hillary Rodham Clinton – “Women’s Rights are Human Rights” [1995]

                                           Assessments:

[Formative]

  • Graphic Organizers for the rhetorical appeals found in the speeches
  • Comparative essay
  • Group project [the art of persuasion]: [?]  [in class assignment]
  • SOAPSTone [Source/Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, Subject, Tone)
  • Personal narrative

[Summative]

  • Rhetorical analysis essay
  • create your own speech of empowerment 

    Scope and Sequence      [ Lesson Plans ]

Day One:

Aim: What is SOAPSTone and how can the use of it help our understanding of rhetoric and writing?

Do Now: How could someone change your mind or convince you to do something? Write one paragraph explaining the technique[s] used that you think would work on yourself. [6 minutes].

Go over as a class [5 minutes].

Mini-Lesson:

  • Break down of SOAPSTone [speaker, occasion, audience, purpose, subject, tone. Ask students to evaluate the significance of these factors when thinking critically about a text or speech. [6 minutes].
  • Read the preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a spirit read [one student starts to read and stops anywhere from one line to two paragraphs, then another student picks up and read aloud and so on. With this technique, students have agency over their reading and their participation.] We’ll go over the speaker of this text and why it matters, as well as why it helps  us determine the purpose of this text [5 minutes].
  • Students will then determine the other factors of SOAPSTone. Afterwards, they will choose from a list of articles in the Declaration pertaining to a specific right and write a response, two or three paragraphs long, about how that article they chose has either affected them or could affect them. Be sure to include what
    HW: Finish the response on the articles.  Read Margaret Sanger’s “The Morality of Birth Control” speech – annotate it

Day Two:

Aim: What are some rhetorical appeals found in Margaret Sanger’s “The Morality of Birth Control” speech?   http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/margaretsangermoralityofbirthcontrol.htm

Do Now: share out from yesterday’s responses of personal persuasion [5-6 minutes]

Mini Lesson:

  • go over specific rhetorical appeals – what they appeal to, and how it is created [pathos, ethos, logos, rhetorical questions] [6 minutes].
  • Fill in one rhetorical appeal in the graphic organizer, have students fill in two more, based on Margaret Sanger’s “The Morality of Birth Control” [15 minutes].
  • Class discussion about the appeals and how their use did or did not strengthen Sanger’s speech as well as hweinberg707’s post, “Do They Really Respect Women?” [about 10 minutes].
  • Brief in-class survey over the speaker’s [Sanger] effectiveness [did she or did she not convince you?] Assign roles for upcoming class debate [tomorrow?]

HW: Make a list of arguments found or implied, based on your role in the debate

bc

Day Three:

Aim: Based on textual evidence, how can we strongly debate the arguments found in Sanger’s “The Morality of Birth Control” speech?

debate

Do Now:

  • Class will divide into three circles – for or against the issue of birth control [as two socratic circles], while the third group will be an objective panel of judges that will assess the other two camps’ use of the rhetorical appeals in the debate and how effective each argument was or was not.
  • Within each camp that has a stance, there is one speaker, with a support team of 7 other students [think of a fishbowl seminar- they function as the speaker’s fact checkers and presenters of ‘new angle’ to strengthen the arguments and win the debate].
  • Based on the appeals, students will debate either for or against birth control [11 minutes]. Students will sit as such: for the birth control camp, its speaker will sit and face the speaker of the anti birth control camp. Behind each speaker will sit their support team in a small cluster. Around the clusters will sit the remaining, objective audience, noting not only the rhetor’s performance, but what the supporting teams are saying to defend their arguments.
  • The audience speaks – they will tell us what they noted and why what they observed matters in a debate [a la hweiberg707’s synthesis].

HW: class survey through google forms about who they admire in pop culture, who is an icon when it comes to human rights, and is there common ground between the two [students will have to explain each answer].

Day Four:

Aim: Do the labels ‘icon’ or ‘iconic’ diminish the credibility of a rhetor or speech?

rhetoric-2014-1060x650

Do Now:  Using Rasha’s blog post on Trump’s Anti-Ethos Rhetoric, write a short paragraph explaining Donald Trump’s quote:
TRUMP:  Our jobs are fleeing the country. They’re going to Mexico. They’re going to many other countries. You look at what China is doing to our country in terms of making our product. They’re devaluing their currency, and there’s nobody in our government to fight them. And we have a very good fight. And we have a winning fight. Because they’re using our country as a piggy bank to rebuild China, and many other countries are doing the same thing…But we have to stop our jobs from being stolen from us.
What appeal[s] is he incorporating into his rhetoric? Does it strengthen his argument?  [5-6 minutes]

trump-china-0616.gif

  • Class discussion based on student responses [7 minutes]
  • Go over HW survey results [5 minutes]
  • Using personalized responses to survey questions, write a personal narrative [about 2-3 long paragraphs] about fame, iconic status, the social cause[s] of the individuals you admire and if and how they are effective with their rhetoric and purpose. [20 minutes]
  • Share out [time permitting]

Day Five:

Aim:  What are the rhetorical appeals found in Hillary Rodham Clinton – “Women’s Rights are Human Rights” speech? [1995]

Do Now: Based on the commentary found in the blog post  “Women’s Rights are Human Rights” by professorhayden, write a paragraph noting what the commentators focused on; was it Hillary Rodham Clinton’s rhetoric, her appearance, or both? Share out [7 minutes]

HRC.jpg

https://via.hypothes.is/if_/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXM4E23Efvk

  • Hand out transcribed copies of speech. As students watch speech, annotate for the rhetorical appeals, and take note of the visual rhetoric.
  • Start graphic organizer on speech


Additional Materials:

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 (General Assembly resolution 217 A) as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected and it has been translated into over 500 languages.

http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

Preamble

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Rhetorical Analysis Graphic Organizer

Name: _________________________________________

Essential question: How do authors use rhetorical devices in order to serve their purpose?

Title: ____________________________________

Author: _________________________

Audience for the text: ________________________________________________

author’s purpose with text: ___________________________________________________

Rhetorical device: __________________________________

Definition: __________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

Rhetorical device: __________________________________

Definition: _______________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

Rhetorical device: __________________________________

Definition: __________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

Sample thesis statement: In [title], [author]  uses [3 rhetorical devices] in order to [author’s purpose].

Your thesis: ____________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Evidence from the text:

  1. Rhetorical device: __________________________________

Direct quote that is example of rhetorical device:

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Why is the quote an example of the rhetorical device?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

How does this specific example serve the author’s purpose?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Rhetorical device: __________________________________

Direct quote that is example of rhetorical device:

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Why is the quote an example of the rhetorical device?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

How does this specific example serve the author’s purpose?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Rhetorical device: __________________________________

Direct quote that is example of rhetorical device:

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Why is the quote an example of the rhetorical device?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

How does this specific example serve the author’s purpose?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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